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Weather

Grade: 

2nd Grade

Subject: 

Science

Lesson: 

1

Objective: 

Define water vapor.

Describe evaporation.

Describe condensation.

Materials: 

Three clear plastic cups with a mark " from the bottom

Pitcher of water

Jar with a lid, ice cubes, a tissue

Instruction/Exercise: 

Procedure

Tell the children that you are going to read a poem which will tell the name of their first science unit for the year. Read the following:

Whether the weather be fine,

Or whether the weather be not,

Whether the weather be cold,

Or whether the weather be hot,

We'll weather the weather

Whatever the weather

Whether we like it or not.

Ask: What is the name of the unit? Ask: Have you seen a puddle disappear or dry up after it rains? Where does the water go? Does all the water soak into the ground? (The water escapes into the air in small droplets that we call water vapor. These drops are too tiny to see as they go into the air.) Today's activity will help you see what happens to the water from the puddle.

Ask three children to come to the front of the room to help you. Give each of the children a clear plastic cup that has a mark " from the bottom of the cup. Now ask each child to pour water into his cup so that it just reaches the line. Ask one child to place his cup in a very warm, sunny location. The second child is to place his cup in a cool, shady location. The third child is to place his cup in a location with a draft. After several hours note what has happened to the water in the cups. The children should see that the water level has gone down more in the cups placed in the warm, sunny location and in the location with the draft than in the shady location. Tell the children that the water has slowly disappeared into the air. It could not possibly soak into the soil in this situation. The way water escapes into the air is called evaporation. The air is full of invisible water vapor because water evaporates from rivers and seas all the time. Ask: What is water vapor? (Tiny drops of water that escape into the air are water vapor.) Ask: What is the process of evaporation and how does it happen? (Evaporation is the process of water escaping

into the air. It happens at all times, but it happens much more quickly when the air is warm and it is windy. Evaporation occurs when water vapor is heated.) Ask: What happens to the water that is in clothing that has been washed and hung on the line to dry? (It evaporates.)

Ask : What happens when you take a can of soda out of the refrigerator and hold the can for a little time? (The outside of the can gets wet.) Tell the children that this is condensation at work. It is the way we get water back into our world. You will show them another example of condensation similar to the one of the soda can. Fill a jar with ice cubes and put a lid on it. The jar is being made very cold. Ask: Does anything happen to the outside of the jar? (Water forms on the jar.) Have a child come up and wipe the jar with a tissue and note that the tissue is wet. Water droplets form on the jar because the air near the jar is cooled by the ice-cold jar. When water vapor in the air cools, the drops get big enough to see. This is called condensation. Condensation can be seen in another way. When water boils, steam is given off. The tiny drops of steam form a mist. The boiling water gives off a hot vapor. This vapor cools as it meets colder air and turns into drops you see as steam. Ask: What is the process of condensation and how does it happen? (Condensation is the process of water returning to the air. It happens all the time. Condensation occurs when water vapor meets cooler air.)

Tell the children that clouds are made up of condensation drops that form when water vapor rises from the ground and meets the cold air above. When tiny drops in the clouds come together and get heavier, they fall as rain.

Color Lesson 4

Grade: 

2nd Grade

Subject: 

Arts

Lesson: 

4

Objective: 

Reinforce the concepts of primary and secondary colors. Have the children observe, then chart the results of their observations.

Materials: 

Materials for the teacher 3 containers of brightly colored water (yellow, red, blue); 3 eye droppers Transparency; overhead projector Large Data Chart, modeled on Student Data Sheet attached Paper towels; white and lined paper; sponge Materials for each student 1 4" x 5" piece of clear acetate transparency; 3 eye droppers labeled yellow, red, blue 2-3 pieces of white paper; 2-3 toothpicks; 1 copy of Data Sheet #1, attached 4 small plastic cups; 2-3 white paper towels; crayons For each group: 1 "dumper" (bottom of half-gallon milk carton); tray to hold dumper and colors

Instruction/Exercise: 

Demonstration Ask if anyone remembers what the three primary colors are and what makes them primary colors (red, yellow, and blue; primary, the first and most basic). Remind them of the demonstration that you did in the glass containers of water (Lesson 2) and ask what colors resulted (secondary colors: green, orange, purple). Ask students to watch carefully as you place a transparency on the overhead projector. Place a drop of blue water on the transparency. Then, using a different dropper, place a drop of yellow water very close to the blue water. Have students identify the colors. Ask what they think would happen if you mixed the colors (produce green) and ask them to explain the reasoning behind their guesses. Use a toothpick to mix the colors. Ask the students to identify the new color. Demonstrate on the large chart how to use crayons to record the results of the mixing. Explain the meaning of the + and = signs. Student Procedure Give out supplies (excepting colored water) and review procedures. Emphasize that it is important to use only one drop of colored water each time and that droppers for each color must be kept separate. Have students review the procedure, then distribute colored water. Have each student place an acetate sheet on top of the white paper, select a color, and place a drop of it on the transparency. Then have the student add another drop and mix the two with a toothpick. Have students use data sheets and crayons to record the results of mixing the colors. Have the students experiment in the same way with two more colors until six combinations have been tried. Be sure they have recorded their results on their data sheets. Have the children use white paper towels to soak up the colors on their acetates, observing what happens as the liquid moves into the towel. Finally, tell them that when painters like Matisse created their paintings, they worked BCP DRAFT ART 8 First Grade - Visual Arts - Lesson 4 - Color with a large palette (piece of wood, curved to fit the hand--sketch shape on board) or a piece of wood or glass on which they mixed individual colors with a spatula (sketch shape on board and differentiate from cooking spatula) or brush. Tell them that when colors are further mixed to produce tiny changes and differences, those tiny differences in color are called shades. Ask whether they remember all the different shades of red they saw in the Matisse painting (Lesson 1) of the room with all the wonderful designs on the rugs, tablecloth, and screen. You might show the painting again so they can take another good look.